China needs to build a new housing policy system-carmex润唇膏

China needs to build a new housing policy system, public policy Ma Guangyuan column entered in February, the real estate policy portfolio entered the intensive release period. Following the 2 2 April people’s banks to adjust the mortgage policy, the first purchase of ordinary residents family housing Shoufu ratio was adjusted to 25% (around floating down 5 percentage points), and 2 17, the central bank decided to employee housing provident fund account deposit interest rate adjustment in accordance with the unified benchmark one-year deposit interest rate after the implementation of 2, June 19, the Ministry of Finance decided to part of the real estate transaction taxes, business tax adjustments. For the individual purchase of the only family housing, an area of 90 square meters and below, reduced by 1% tax levied deed tax; area of 90 square meters or more, reduce the tax rate of 1.5% levy deed tax. For individuals to buy family second sets of improved housing, an area of 90 square meters and below, reduced by 1% tax levied deed tax; area of 90 square meters or more, reduce the tax rate of 2% levy deed tax. Individuals will purchase less than 2 years of housing sales, the full collection of business tax; individuals will purchase more than 2 years (including 2 years) housing sales, exempt from business tax. After the adjustment of the business tax and deed tax, the business tax and deed tax policy of the real estate transaction link basically returned to the level of the big bailout in 2008. Within a month, and is in the "NPC and CPPCC" before the continuous issued a series of policies of real estate deregulation, on the one hand, the real estate stock to the difficulty of hitherto unknown; on the other hand, in the face of this year’s macro-economic situation is grim, the stability of the real estate is expected for the overall performance of the economy China the increasingly significant. Based on this, breaking the previous convention in the policy cycle, bringing up the start policy cycle, which in the current context is not difficult to understand. However, it is necessary to point out that in the Chinese real estate fundamentals have changed the situation, how to use the real estate cycle inventory, re construct China real estate policies, the real estate market in order to adapt to the new situation, compared with the short-term inventory policy of the real estate itself, China long-term health is more important than major. In addition to inventory, China’s future real estate policy should stand in the macro economy and long-term development of real estate to the system design. The current real estate bailout policies, not short-term help developers to inventory, but China in real estate has been disruptive turning point under the condition that the basic system of how to analysis and design of real estate, real estate in the face of new basic land system, credit system, tax system and trading system were redesigned based on the the existing system can reflect the fundamentals of the current real estate, rather than to inventory and inventory. By some piecemeal policy, not only solve the current China not facing real estate issues, but also provide the institutional framework for the healthy development of the real estate is not long. For example, the current I see some places to encourage migrant workers to buy a house policy, whether subsidies, or encouraged to settle down, and the expectations of migrant workers are far apart. We can’t hope for the peasants who work in big cities to run back to poverty 9

中国需要构建新的住房政策体系   公共政策   马光远专栏   进入2月份,房地产政策组合拳进入了密集发布期。   继2月2日人民银行调整了房贷政策,将居民家庭首次购买普通住房的首付比例调整为25%(各地可向下浮动5个百分点),以及2月17日,央行决定将职工住房公积金账户存款利率调整为统一按照一年期定期存款基准利率执行后,2月19日,财政部决定对房地产交易环节的契税、营业税进行重大调整。对个人购买家庭唯一住房,面积为90平方米及以下的,减按1%的税率征收契税;面积为90平方米以上的,减按1.5%的税率征收契税。对个人购买家庭第二套改善性住房,面积为90平方米及以下的,减按1%的税率征收契税;面积为90平方米以上的,减按2%的税率征收契税。个人将购买不足2年的住房对外销售的,全额征收营业税;个人将购买2年以上(含2年)的住房对外销售的,免征营业税。通过这次营业税、契税的调整后,房地产交易环节的营业税和契税政策基本回到了2008年大救市的水平。   在一个月以内,而且是在“两会”之前,连续出台房地产松绑的一系列政策,一方面说明房地产去库存的难度之大前所未有;另一方面,在今年宏观经济面临的形势严峻的情况下,稳定房地产预期对于中国经济的整体表现而言的意义越来越重大。基于此,在政策出台周期上打破以前的惯例,提起启动政策周期,这在当下的语境下其实不难理解。   但是,需要指出的是,在中国房地产基本面已经今非昔比的情况下,如何利用房地产去库存的周期,实现中国房地产政策体系的重新构建,以适应房地产市场新的形势,相对于短期去库存政策本身,对中国房地产长期健康的意义更为重大。除了去库存,中国未来的房地产政策更要站在宏观经济和房地产长期健康发展的高度予以系统设计。   当下的房地产救市政策,绝非短期的帮助开发商去库存,而是在中国房地产已经出现颠覆性转折点的情况下,如何重新梳理和设计房地产的基本制度,基于房地产新的基本面对土地制度、信贷制度、税收制度以及交易制度都重新设计,使得现有的制度能够反映当下房地产的基本面,而不是为去库存而去库存。靠一些零打碎敲的政策,既解决不了当下中国房地产面临的问题,也无法为房地产长期的健康发展提供制度框架。比如,目前笔者看到的一些地方的鼓励农民工买房的政策,无论是补贴,还是鼓励落户,都和农民工的期待相去甚远。我们不能一厢情愿地希望在大城市打工的农民跑回贫穷的老家去帮助消化房地产库存。而且,鉴于中国很多三四线城市公共资源的现状,一些轻微的财政补贴根本吸引不了农民工。在这种情况下,就需要考虑农民工买房、租房的各种需求,针对这些具体的需求解决他们的住房问题,不是三下两下就能解决,而是把它作为一个长期问题来设计。现在的很多政策,急功近利的色彩太为明显,好在改革开放30多年,农民工对很多政策也能分辨清楚。   笔者对诸如降低首付、减免税费、提高公积金的贷款额度以及其他的救市举措都不反对,但今天中国房地产的问题已经不是这些小手术可以解决的。中国房地产领域的很多制度措施必须推倒重来,重新设计。信贷政策既要考虑农民工购房需求,也要考虑美国“次贷”的教训,在金融制度的设计上要加快住房银行的建立,以及参照美国的“两房”建立真正的住房金融机构(笔者一直强调,美国的“两房”制度总体成功,而不是像有些人想象的非常糟糕);在户籍制度上,通过房地产去库存,冲破户籍制度的藩篱,为农民工在就业地落户打破最后一公里的障碍;在住房价格上,可以考虑通过发行住房券、租房券等一些创新工具,发挥杠杆效应(比如笔者提出通过发行住房券,农民工买房可以实行半价政策);在土地使用年限和交易方式上都考虑中国房地产供应已经过剩的现实;在住房保障层面,加快住房保障立法。总之,制度创新的空间极大,只有通过大胆的创新,放弃一救就活的幻想,中国房地产才有可能化危为安,避免成为中国经济的拖累。   (作者系经济学博士) 责任编辑:李清 SN219相关的主题文章: